CCR5 blockade for neuroinflammatory diseases--beyond control of HIV

Nat Rev Neurol. 2016 Feb;12(2):95-105. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2015.248. Epub 2016 Jan 18.


Chemokine receptors have been implicated in a wide range of CNS inflammatory diseases and have important roles in the recruitment and positioning of immune cells within tissues. Among them, the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) can be targeted by maraviroc, a readily available and well-tolerated drug that was developed for the treatment of HIV. Correlative evidence implicates the CCR5-chemokine axis in multiple sclerosis, Rasmussen encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and infectious diseases, such as cerebral malaria and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. On the basis of this evidence, we postulate in this Review that CCR5 antagonists, such as maraviroc, offer neuroprotective benefits in settings in which CCR5 promotes deleterious neuroinflammation, particularly in diseases in which CD8(+) T cells seem to play a pivotal role.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CCR5 Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / metabolism
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / pathology
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / metabolism
  • HIV Infections / pathology
  • Humans
  • Neuroimmunomodulation / drug effects
  • Neuroimmunomodulation / physiology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Receptors, CCR5 / metabolism


  • CCR5 Receptor Antagonists
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Receptors, CCR5