NAD⁺ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration

Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1208-13. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4854.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It serves both as a critical coenzyme for enzymes that fuel reduction-oxidation reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another, and as a cosubstrate for other enzymes such as the sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases. Cellular NAD(+) concentrations change during aging, and modulation of NAD(+) usage or production can prolong both health span and life span. Here we review factors that regulate NAD(+) and discuss how supplementation with NAD(+) precursors may represent a new therapeutic opportunity for aging and its associated disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / drug effects
  • Aging / genetics
  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Biosynthetic Pathways
  • DNA Damage
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Fatty Liver / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / drug therapy
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism*
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism
  • Sirtuins / metabolism


  • NAD
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • Sirtuins