Background: We have previously shown that a combination of glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) plus caffeine reduces accumulation of body fat, whereas G-hesperidin or caffeine alone shows little effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of G-hesperidin plus caffeine on body fat and serum TG in healthy subjects with moderately high body mass index (BMI) and serum TG. Since we considered that there are individual differences in caffeine sensitivity, we conducted dose-finding study of caffeine combined with G-hesperidin.
Methods: Seventy-five healthy subjects with moderately high BMI (24-30 kg/m(2)) and serum TG (100-250 mg/dl) were divided and assigned to 12-week intervention with daily intakes of 500 mg of G-hesperidin with or without 25, 50, or 75 mg of caffeine, or placebo in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design .
Results: After intervention, decreases in abdominal fat area (AFA), especially subcutaneous fat area (SFA), were significantly greater in the G-hesperidin with 50-mg caffeine group (AFA:-8.4 ± 21.9 v.s. 16.3 ± 34.1 cm(2); p < 0.05, SFA: -9.3 ± 17.1 v.s. 11.2 ± 18.3 cm(2); p < 0.01) and in the G-hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine group (AFA:-17.0 ± 31.4 v.s. 16.3 ± 34.1 cm(2); p < 0.01, SFA: -12.4 ± 18.7 v.s. 11.2 ± 18.3 cm(2); p < 0.01) than in the placebo group. Fat-decreasing effects of G-hesperidin were enhanced dose-dependently by caffeine addition. BMI decreases were significantly greater in the G-hesperidin with 75-mg caffeine group than in the placebo group (-0.56 ± 0.74 v.s. -0.02 ± 0.58 kg/m(2); p < 0.05). G-hesperidin with/without caffeine had no effect on serum TG (p > 0.05 v.s. placebo).
Conclusions: These data suggested that a combination of 500-mg G-hesperidin with 50- or 75-mg caffeine may be useful for the prevention or treatment of obesity.
Trial registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000019241 .