Dermatologic evaluation of cosmetic formulations containing Chrysanthemum indicum extract

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016 Jun;15(2):162-8. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12211. Epub 2016 Jan 20.


Background: Chrysanthemum indicum, an oriental medicinal plant, has been shown to display a variety of pharmacological activities including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects.

Aims: In this study, we evaluated the ability of C. indicum extracts to inhibit in vitro tyrosinase activity and the skin care effects of cosmetic formulations containing 0.5% C. indicum water extract in human volunteers.

Patients/methods: The formation of dopachrome from L -dopa by mushroom tyrosinase was observed after treatments with C. indicum extracts. The volunteers received placebo (no extract) or test (0.5% C. indicum water extract) cosmetic cream and applied it on their face three times a day for 6 weeks. Biophysical skin parameters were measured every 2 weeks.

Results: Chrysanthemum indicum methanol and water extracts dose dependently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity, and the effects of methanol extract were similar to those of kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. Clinical evaluations revealed that application of cosmetic formulations containing C. indicum water extract time dependently reduced melanin levels over 6 weeks, whereas the placebo group showed no effect. No changes in moisture, elasticity, wrinkles, evenness, and pore size were observed in either group. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analyses revealed that luteolin and acacetin-7-O-rutinoside are the major flavonoid compounds in C. indicum water extract.

Conclusion: These results suggest that C. indicum water extract could be applied as a natural skin-whitening agent for functional cosmetic uses, due to its melanin-reducing efficacy.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum indicum; cosmetic formulation; melanogenesis; skin physiology; tyrosinase.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chrysanthemum*
  • Cosmetics / pharmacology
  • Drug Compounding / methods*
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Melanins / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Phytotherapy / methods*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Reference Values
  • Sampling Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Skin Lightening Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Skin Lightening Preparations / pharmacology*
  • Skin Pigmentation / drug effects


  • Cosmetics
  • Melanins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Skin Lightening Preparations