The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea

J Pediatr Nurs. 2016 May-Jun;31(3):e185-97. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2015.12.001. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children.

Keywords: Aggression; Depression; Elementary school students; Mind subtraction meditation; Salivary cortisol; School-based meditation program; Social anxiety; Stress.

MeSH terms

  • Aggression
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis
  • Anxiety Disorders / metabolism
  • Anxiety Disorders / therapy*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / metabolism
  • Depression / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / analysis*
  • Male
  • Meditation / methods*
  • Mental Health
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Republic of Korea
  • Salivary Glands / metabolism*
  • School Health Services
  • Students / psychology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers
  • Hydrocortisone