TNF and ROS Crosstalk in Inflammation

Trends Cell Biol. 2016 Apr;26(4):249-261. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2015.12.002. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is tremendously important for mammalian immunity and cellular homeostasis. The role of TNF as a master regulator in balancing cell survival, apoptosis and necroptosis has been extensively studied in various cell types and tissues. Although these findings have revealed much about the direct impact of TNF on the regulation of NF-κB and JNK, there is now rising interest in understanding the emerging function of TNF as a regulator of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In this review we summarize work aimed at defining the role of TNF in the control of ROS/RNS signaling that influences innate immune cells under both physiological and inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: NADPH oxidase (NOX); immunity; inflammation; necroptosis; reactive oxygen species (ROS); tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Survival
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeostasis / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Lymphocytes / pathology
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / genetics
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / immunology
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / immunology
  • Necrosis / genetics
  • Necrosis / immunology
  • Necrosis / pathology
  • Reactive Nitrogen Species / immunology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology*


  • NF-kappa B
  • Reactive Nitrogen Species
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4