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. 2016 Nov;29(22):3646-51.
doi: 10.3109/14767058.2016.1140734. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

The Common Vaginal Commensal Bacterium Ureaplasma Parvum Is Associated With Chorioamnionitis in Extreme Preterm Labor


The Common Vaginal Commensal Bacterium Ureaplasma Parvum Is Associated With Chorioamnionitis in Extreme Preterm Labor

Ciara Cox et al. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. .


Objective: To assess the association of vaginal commensal and low-grade pathogenic bacteria including Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Group B streptococcus (GBS), and Gardnerella vaginalis, in women who delivered preterm at less than 37-week gestation in the presence or absence of inflammation of the chorioamnionitic membranes.

Methods: A case control study involving women who delivered before 37-week gestation with and without inflammation of chorioamnionitic membranes. A total of 57 placental samples were histologically examined for polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration of placental tissue for evidence of chorioamnionitis, and by type-specific nucleic acid amplification for evidence of infection with one or more of the target bacteria. Demographic data were collected for each mother.

Results: Among the 57 placental samples, 42.1% had chorioamnionitis and 24.6% delivered in the second trimester of pregnancy; U. parvum, U. urealyticum, G. vaginalis, and GBS were all detected in the study with respective prevalence of 19.3%, 3.5%, 17.5%, and 15.8%; M. genitalium and M. hominis were not detected. U. parvum was significantly associated with chorioamnionitis (p = 0.02; OR 5.0; (95% CI 1.2-21.5) and was more common in women who delivered in the second (35.7%) compared to the third trimester of pregnancy (13.9%). None of the other bacteria were associated with chorioamnionitis or earlier delivery, and all G. vaginalis-positive women delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: The detection of U. parvum in placental tissue was significantly associated with acute chorioamnionitis in women presenting in extreme preterm labor.

Keywords: Bacteria; PCR; Ureaplasma; intra-amniotic; placenta; pregnancy; prematurity; trimester.

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