Satiation and satiety sensations produced by eating oatmeal vs. oranges. a comparison of different scales

Appetite. 2016 Apr 1;99:168-176. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.01.012. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


The primary objective of this study was to use the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire (Karalus, 2011) to compare the changes in satiation and satiety produced by eating oranges with the changes produced by eating oatmeal. A secondary objective was to compare the data from the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire with that from more traditionally used scales. Thirty participants evaluated hunger and fullness feelings before breakfast and at 0, 60, and 120 min after consuming breakfasts of equal volumes of oranges and oatmeal. We covertly recorded food intake from an ad libitum snack offered 2 h after breakfast. Oranges were less effective than oatmeal for decreasing mental hunger immediately after eating. Mental hunger increased more and mental fullness decreased more during the 2-h period after eating oranges than after eating oatmeal. Neither physical hunger changes nor physical fullness changes differed between the two foods. Participants ate more food at an ad libitum snack 2 h after eating the oranges compared with after eating the oatmeal. We were better able to distinguish the feelings produced by the oatmeal from the feelings produced by the oranges with the factor scales than with the traditional scales of hunger and fullness.

Keywords: Fullness; Hunger; Measurement; Oatmeal; Oranges; Satiation; Satiety; Scaling.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Avena*
  • Breakfast
  • Citrus sinensis*
  • Eating*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Portion Size
  • Satiation / physiology*
  • Snacks
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult