Analytical characteristics of a biomarker-based risk assessment test for acute kidney injury (AKI)

Clin Chim Acta. 2016 Apr 1;455:93-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2016.01.012. Epub 2016 Jan 18.


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, hospital length of stay, and costs. A quantitative urine test is available to assess the risk of developing AKI by measuring the concentrations of two protein biomarkers, TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7. The NephroCheck Test combines these concentrations into an AKIRisk Score. The purpose of this study is to characterize the analytical performance characteristics of the AKIRisk Score.

Methods: Linearity and analytical sensitivity were evaluated by following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP06-A and EP17-A, respectively. Precision was evaluated by testing clinical samples and examining the repeatability of test results. Potential interference was evaluated for endogenous and exogenous substances. Sample stability was examined at room temperature and at 2-8°C, as well as the effect of sample centrifugation temperature on test results.

Results: The AKIRisk Score exhibits approximately 10% coefficient of variation (CV) at the recommended cutoff value of 0.3 and the limit of quantitation (LoQ) was 0.002. Only albumin, bilirubin (conjugated), and methylene blue interfered with test results, at concentrations exceeding 1250 mg/L, 72 mg/L, and 0.49 mg/L, respectively. AKIRisk Score results were stable for 6h at room temperature, 24h refrigerated, and not impacted by sample centrifugation temperature.

Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that the AKIRisk Score has robust analytical performance, good precision, minimal analytical interference, acceptable sensitivity, and excellent sample stability.

Keywords: AKIRisk score; Acute kidney injury (AKI); Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7); Interference; KDIGO: kidney disease improving global outcomes; Limit-of-detection; Precision; Sample stability; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Biomarkers / urine*
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / urine*
  • Kidney Diseases / urine*
  • Limit of Detection
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / urine*


  • Biomarkers
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
  • insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2