Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016 Feb 1;1011:223-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.01.009. Epub 2016 Jan 11.


Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Chemical characterization; Ginger; Processing; UPLC/QTOF-MS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Catechols / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Fatty Alcohols / chemistry
  • Ginger / chemistry*
  • Guaiacol / analogs & derivatives
  • Guaiacol / chemistry
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Catechols
  • Fatty Alcohols
  • Plant Extracts
  • zingerone
  • Guaiacol
  • shogaol
  • gingerol