Incidence and Clinical Course of Respiratory Viral Coinfections in Children Aged 0-59 Months

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;905:17-23. doi: 10.1007/5584_2015_185.


Clinical data available on coinfections are contradictory concerning both the number of viruses involved and the severity of the condition. A total of 114 patients aged 0-59 months with symptoms of respiratory tract infection were enrolled into the study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were tested using the PCR method for the following 12 viruses: influenza A, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), respiratory syncytial virus B (RSV B), adenovirus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus 229E/NL63 (hCoV229), coronavirus OC43 (hCoVOC43), parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV-1), parainfluenza virus 2 (PIV-2), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3), and rhinovirus A/B. Coinfections were detected in nine (8 %) patients. Five of the coinfections were related to influenza A (H3N2) virus associated with the following other, single or combined, respiratory viruses: influenza B in one case, hCoV229 in two cases, hCoV229, RSV A, and PIV-2 in one case, and PIV-1, PIV-2, RSV A, RSV B, and adenovirus in one case. The other four coinfections were caused by: adenovirus and hCoVOC43, adenovirus, and rhinovirus, RSV A and PIV-1, influenza B, and RSV B. We did not observe any significant differences in the clinical course of infections caused either by a single or multiple viral factors.

Keywords: Children; Coinfection; Etiology; Pathogenesis of infection; Respiratory tract disease; Virus.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / genetics
  • Adenovirus Infections, Human / epidemiology*
  • Adenovirus Infections, Human / physiopathology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coinfection / epidemiology*
  • Coinfection / physiopathology
  • Coronavirus / genetics
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / physiopathology
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / genetics
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology*
  • Influenza, Human / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Metapneumovirus / genetics
  • Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human / genetics
  • Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human / genetics
  • Paramyxoviridae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Paramyxoviridae Infections / physiopathology
  • Picornaviridae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Picornaviridae Infections / physiopathology
  • Poland / epidemiology
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / physiopathology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human / genetics
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / physiopathology
  • Rhinovirus / genetics