Background: The duration of protection in children and adults resulting from hepatitis B vaccination is unknown. In 1981, we immunized a cohort of 1578 Alaska Native adults and children from 15 Alaska communities aged ≥6 months using 3 doses of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine.
Methods: Persons were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels 30 years after receiving the primary series. Those with levels <10 mIU/mL received 1 booster dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine 2-4 weeks later and were then evaluated on the basis of anti-HBs measurements 30 days after the booster.
Results: Among 243 persons (56%) who responded to the original primary series but received no subsequent doses during the 30-year period, 125 (51%) had an anti-HBs level ≥10 mIU/mL. Among participants with anti-HBs levels <10 mIU/mL who were available for follow-up, 75 of 85 (88%) responded to a booster dose with an anti-HBs level ≥10 mIU/mL at 30 days. Initial anti-HBs level after the primary series was correlated with higher anti-HBs levels at 30 years.
Conclusions: Based on anti-HBs level ≥10 mIU/mL at 30 years and an 88% booster dose response, we estimate that ≥90% of participants had evidence of protection 30 years later. Booster doses are not needed.
Keywords: 30 years; Alaska; Alaska Native; US; anti-HBs; antibody; cohort; hepatitis B; immunogenicity; plasma-derived vaccine.
Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.