[The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity]

Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2015 Dec;39(234):405-7.
[Article in Polish]


Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

Keywords: breathing mode; gingivitis and periodontitis; halitosis; malocclusion; mouth breathing; physical development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Candidiasis / etiology
  • Child
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / etiology
  • Gingivitis / etiology
  • Halitosis / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia / etiology
  • Malocclusion / etiology
  • Mouth / pathology*
  • Mouth Breathing / complications
  • Mouth Breathing / pathology*
  • Periodontitis / etiology