Sex, Gender, and Traumatic Brain Injury: A Commentary

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Feb;97(2 Suppl):S1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2015.12.002.


The goal of this supplemental issue is to address major knowledge, research, and clinical practice gaps regarding the limited focus on brain injury in girls and women as well as limited analysis of the effect of sex and gender in research on acquired brain injury. Integrating sex and gender in research is recognized as leading to better science and, ultimately, to better clinical practice. A sex and gender analytical approach to rehabilitation research is crucial to understanding traumatic brain injury and improving quality of life outcomes for survivors. Put another way, the lack of focus on sex and gender reduces the rigor of research design, the generalizability of study findings, and the effectiveness of clinical implementation and knowledge dissemination practices. The articles in this supplement examine sex and gender using a variety of methodological approaches and research contexts. Recommendations for future research on acquired brain injury that consciously incorporates sex and gender are made throughout this issue. This supplement is a product of the Girls and Women with ABI Task Force of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Keywords: Brain concussion; Brain injuries; Gender identity; Rehabilitation; Sex; Women.

Publication types

  • Introductory Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain Injuries / rehabilitation*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine*
  • Quality of Life
  • Research
  • Sex Factors*