Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk

J Dairy Sci. 2016 Mar;99(3):1736-1746. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10434. Epub 2016 Jan 21.


Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro compared with the Salmonella-treated group. In summary, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 from breast milk could be considered as a probiotic candidate for dairy products to promote human health.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04; antiadhesion; antiinflammatory; stress resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Female
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / growth & development*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / growth & development*
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillus plantarum / isolation & purification
  • Lactobacillus plantarum / physiology*
  • Milk, Human / microbiology*
  • Probiotics*


  • Cytokines