Purpose: To investigate alteration in superficial and deep retinal vascular densities and choroidal thickness, in patients affected by early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Methods: All patients had undergone optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). All eyes were grouped into two stages: "early AMD" and "intermediate AMD." Outcome measures were superficial vessel density, deep vessel density, and choroidal thickness. A control group of healthy subjects was selected for the statistical comparisons.
Results: A total of 37 eyes of 37 dry AMD patients were enrolled for the study. Fourteen of 37 eyes were classified as having early AMD, the remaining 23 of 37 eyes were classified as being affected by intermediate AMD. Superficial and deep vessel densities were 39.21% ± 10.67% and 43.84% ± 11.57%, respectively, in the control group and 28.30% ± 10.73% and 36.41% ± 12.30%, respectively, in AMD patients (P = 0.001 and P = 0.017, respectively). Choroidal thickness was significantly reduced in AMD patients.
Conclusion: In the last years, several studies have reported vascular factors playing an important role in AMD pathogenesis. We demonstrated that both superficial and deep retinal plexuses are altered among patients affected by AMD. Interestingly, this alteration starts immediately at the intermediate AMD stage and also the choroidal thickness reduction.