The solution conformation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a small protein of 72 residues with a wide range of proinflammatory activities, has been investigated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The 1H-NMR spectrum of IL-8 is assigned in a sequential manner and regular elements of secondary structure are identified on the basis of a qualitative interpretation of the nuclear Overhauser, coupling constant and amide exchange data. The IL-8 monomer contains a triple stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet arranged in a Greek key and a long C-terminal helix (residues 57-72). It is shown that IL-8 is a dimer in solution in which the interface is principally formed by six backbone hydrogen bonds between residues 25, 27, and 29 of one monomer and residues 29, 27, and 25, respectively, of the other. As a result, the two units of the dimer form a contiguous six-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. The secondary structure of IL-8 is similar to that found in the crystal structure of the sequence related protein platelet factor 4.