Viral immunity. Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine

Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):10.1126/science.aad5872 aad5872. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5872. Epub 2016 Jan 14.


Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / immunology
  • Bacteria / virology
  • Bacteriophages / physiology
  • Fungi / immunology
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / immunology
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Diseases / immunology*
  • Intestinal Diseases / virology*
  • Intestines / immunology*
  • Intestines / virology*
  • Microbiota / immunology*
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*
  • Viruses / immunology*