Effects of a verbal and visual feedback system on running technique, perceived exertion and running economy in female novice runners

J Sports Sci. 1989 Summer;7(2):113-26. doi: 10.1080/02640418908729830.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a verbal and visual feedback system on running technique, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and running economy. Twenty-two female novice runners were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 11) and control (n = 11) groups. The experimental subjects received verbal and visual feedback concerning their running technique prior to and during each training run. Training involved 15 20-min treadmill running sessions over a 5-week period. The control group adhered to the same training routine but did not receive feedback concerning their running technique. High-speed (100 Hz) photography was used to collect biomechanical data. A submaximal oxygen consumption test and Borg's RPE scale were used to collect data concerning running economy and perceived exertion, respectively. Statistical analysis using ANCOVA revealed that the proposed feedback system had a significant (P less than 0.01) effect on the experimental group's running technique by affecting the following desired changes relative to the control group: greater relative stride lengths, shorter support time, greater ankle dorsiflexion during support and greater knee flexion during support and non-support. There were no significant differences between the groups in submaximal VO2 or RPE. The results of this study suggest that verbal and visual feedback are effective means of eliciting modifications in running style in female novice runners. The link between modifications in running style and improvements in running economy and perceived exertion remains unclear.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Efficiency
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Feedback*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Physical Education and Training / methods*
  • Physical Exertion
  • Running*
  • Videotape Recording