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. 2016 Jan 18;8:1-15.
doi: 10.4137/PMC.S13209. eCollection 2016.

Interfering With Bacterial Quorum Sensing

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Free PMC article

Interfering With Bacterial Quorum Sensing

Kerstin Reuter et al. Perspect Medicin Chem. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginoas; Staphylococcus aureus; Vibrio fischeri; autoinducer; quorum sensing inhibitors; virulence.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Quorum-sensing bioluminescence system of V. fischeri.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Quorum-sensing virulence system of P. aeruginosa.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator (agr) system of S. aureus.
Figure 4
Figure 4
S. aureus quorum-sensing inhibitors. (A) Solonamide A and B; (B) AIP D4A; (C) most potent inhibitor found by Murray et al.; (D) savirin; (E) ω-hydroxyemodin.
Figure 5
Figure 5
P. aeruginosa QS inhibitors that inhibit autoinducer biosynthesis. (A) Calfee et al.; (B) Lesic et al.; (C) Coleman et al.; (D) Storz et al.; (E) Hinsberger et al.; (F) Sahner et al.; (G) Allegretta et al.; (H) Weidel et al.; (I) Zhou et al (eugenol); (J) Miller et al.; (K) Chang et al. (salicylic acid); and (L) Chang et al. (trans-cinnamaldehyde).
Figure 6
Figure 6
P. aeruginosa QS inhibitors based on regulator antagonism. (A) Lu et al.,; (B) Ilangovan et al.; (C) Klein et al.; (D) Zender et al.; (E) Starkey et al.; (F) Wu et al. (C-30 furanone); (G) Musthafa et al. (2,5-piperazinedione); (H) McInnis and Blackwell; (I) Geske et al.; (J) Stacy et al.; and (K) O’Loughlin et al. (mBTL).

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