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Review
. 2015 Nov;5(4):447-54.
doi: 10.15171/apb.2015.061. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

A Review of Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Nanoparticles

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Free PMC article
Review

A Review of Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Nanoparticles

Javad Khalili Fard et al. Adv Pharm Bull. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

In recent decades, the use of nanomaterials has received much attention in industrial and medical fields. However, some reports have mentioned adverse effects of these materials on the biological systems and cellular components. There are several major mechanisms for cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) such as physicochemical properties, contamination with toxic element, fibrous structure, high surface charge and radical species generation. In this review, a brief key mechanisms involved in toxic effect of NPs are given, followed by the in vitro toxicity assays of NPs and prooxidant effects of several NPs such as carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide NPs, quantum dots, gold NPs and silver NPs.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity; Mechanism; Nanoparticles; Oxidative stress; Prooxidant effects; Reactivity oxygen species.

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