Nuclear Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance

Trends Cell Biol. 2016 May;26(5):341-351. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2016.01.002. Epub 2016 Jan 25.


Insulin resistance is a sine qua non of type 2 diabetes and is associated with many other clinical conditions. Decades of research into mechanisms underlying insulin resistance have mostly focused on problems in insulin signal transduction and other mitochondrial and cytosolic pathways. By contrast, relatively little attention has been focused on transcriptional and epigenetic contributors to insulin resistance, despite strong evidence that such nuclear mechanisms play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of this condition. In this review, we summarize the evidence for nuclear mechanisms of insulin resistance, focusing on three transcription factors with a major impact on insulin action in liver, muscle, and fat.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Models, Biological
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism


  • PPAR gamma
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear