Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome prevalence in type 2 diabetes patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2016 Apr-Jun;10(2 Suppl 1):S26-9. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2016.01.015. Epub 2016 Jan 16.


Aims: Metabolic syndrome as a cardiovascular disease predictor, is proposed to be reduced by following a Mediterranean diet. This study was aimed to explore the relationships between metabolic syndrome and Mediterranean diet in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 158 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients 28-75 years old (mean age: 54.3±9.6 yrs). Fasting glucose and lipid profile were measured. Blood pressure and anthropometric characteristics of each participant were recorded. Food frequency questionnaires were evaluated using an 11-item score to determine the adherence to Mediterranean diet.

Results: Totally, 55.4% of participants had a good adherence to Mediterranean diet. The risk of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than in men (OR=8.65, CI 95%=2.88-25.99; p<0.001). Nuts, legumes and seeds consumption were associated with a significant lower risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.42, CI 95%=0.188-0.917; p<0.05). No considerable association was observed between metabolic syndrome and adherence to Mediterranean diet (p=0.167).

Conclusions: Results demonstrated no association between Mediterranean diet adherence and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. However, nuts, legumes and seeds might have greater benefits for diabetics.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Dietary patterns; Mediterranean diet; Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diet
  • Diet, Mediterranean*
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Fabaceae
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Lipids / blood
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Nuts
  • Prevalence
  • Seeds


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Lipids