Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review

Phytother Res. 2016 Apr;30(4):519-31. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5568. Epub 2016 Jan 29.


This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments.

Keywords: mineralization; osteogenic differentiation; periodontal ligament; plants; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aloe / chemistry
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Centella / chemistry
  • Coumarins / pharmacology
  • Epimedium / chemistry
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Hesperidin / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Mannans / pharmacology
  • Morinda / chemistry
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects*
  • Periodontal Ligament / cytology*
  • Periodontal Ligament / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Triterpenes / pharmacology
  • Zanthoxylum / chemistry


  • Coumarins
  • Flavonoids
  • Mannans
  • Plant Extracts
  • Triterpenes
  • Hesperidin
  • asiaticoside
  • hesperetin
  • acemannan
  • icariin
  • osthol