Phthalates are important endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been linked to various adverse human health effects. Phthalates are ubiquitously present in indoor environment and could enter humans. Vinyl or PVC floorings have been recognized as one of important sources of phthalate release to indoor environment including house dust. In the present study, we estimated the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) from the flooring materials into the dust under different heating conditions. For this purpose, a small chamber specifically designed for the present study and a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) were used, and four major types of PVC flooring samples including two UV curing paint coated, an uncoated residential, and a wax-coated commercial type were tested. Migration of DEHP was observed for an uncoated residential type and a wax-coated commercial type flooring. After 14 days of incubation, the levels of DEHP in the dust sample was determined at room temperature on average (standard deviation) at 384 ± 19 and 481 ± 53 μg/g, respectively. In contrast, migration of DINP was not observed. The migration of DEHP was strongly influenced by surface characteristics such as UV curing coating. In the residential flooring coated with UV curing paint, migration of DEHP was not observed at room temperature. But under the heated condition, the release of DEHP was observed in the dust in the FLEC. Migration of DEHP from flooring materials increased when the flooring was heated (50 °C). In Korea, heated flooring system, or 'ondol', is very common mode of heating in residential setting, therefore the contribution of PVC flooring to the total indoor DEHP exposure among general population is expected to be greater especially during winter season when the floor is heated.
Keywords: Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP); Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP); Dust; Heating; Migration; Phthalates.
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