Background: Leukotrienes are pivotal lipid mediators in various immune and inflammatory reactions. Herein, 5-LO is a validated target. 2-Aminothiazoles, as a privileged structure, implicate known 5-LO inhibitors like ST-1083 (IC50 [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)] = 0.68 μM), yet deep structure-activity relationships (SAR) have not been established.
Materials & methods: Compounds were synthesized via Hantzsch thiazole synthesis. Inhibitory activities were evaluated using intact PMNL and purified 5-LO together with cytotoxicity measurements in U937 cells.
Results: We introduced novel functionalities at 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-position of the 2-aminothiazole scaffold and conducted bioisosteric replacement to optimize the parent scaffold. SARs of the 2-aminothiazole scaffold were deduced and extended primarily for inhibition of the 5-LO enzyme.
Conclusion: SAR studies provided at least two optimized leads (ST-1853, ST-1906) with high potency (IC50 [polymorphonuclear leukocytes] = 0.05 μM), specificity and noncytotoxic behavior.
Keywords: 5-lipoxygenase; antileukotriene; cancer; inflammation; lead development; structure–activity relationship.