Current clinical practice strongly relies on the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases using methods determined and averaged for the specific diseased cohort/population. Although this approach complies positively with most patients, misdiagnosis, treatment failure, relapse, and adverse drug effects are common occurrences in many individuals, which subsequently hamper the control and eradication of a number of diseases. These incidences can be explained by individual variation in the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of a patient. Various "omics" approaches have investigated the influence of these factors on a molecular level, with the intention of developing personalized approaches to disease diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics, the newest addition to the "omics" domain and the closest to the observed phenotype, reflects changes occurring at all molecular levels, as well as influences resulting from other internal and external factors. By comparing the metabolite profiles of two or more disease phenotypes, metabolomics can be applied to identify biomarkers related to the perturbation being investigated. These biomarkers can, in turn, be used to develop personalized prognostic, diagnostic, and treatment approaches, and can also be applied to the monitoring of disease progression, treatment efficacy, predisposition to drug-related side effects, and potential relapse. In this review, we discuss the contributions that metabolomics has made, and can potentially still make, towards the field of personalized medicine.
Keywords: Diagnostics; Metabolomics; Personalized medicine; Toxicity; Treatment.
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