Predictive value of Galectin-3 for the occurrence of coronary artery disease and prognosis after myocardial infarction and its association with carotid IMT values in these patients: A mid-term prospective cohort study

Atherosclerosis. 2016 Mar;246:309-17. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.01.022. Epub 2016 Jan 14.


Objective: The role of Galectin-3(Gal-3) in atherosclerosis progression has not been definitely acknowledged. The aim of the study was to establish the following: whether Gal-3 may act as an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) occurrence and its advancement, if Gal-3 has potential relations with classical and new markers of cardiovascular risk (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and whether Gal-3 may be a marker of mortality in the group of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) during mid-term follow-up.

Patients and methods: The study group was composed of 233 patients with MI and 100 patients with a stable CAD. Selected risk factors were assessed, Gal-3 concentrations and cIMT were measured. The control group was composed of 100 healthy individuals.

Results: In the study group (MI and CAD patients) Gal-3 concentration was significantly higher than in the controls--median 7.9 ng/ml (p = 0.0001) and 10.7 ng/ml (p = 0.00001) vs. 5.5 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with 3-vessel disease had higher levels of Gal-3 than patients with 1-or 2-vessel disease (9.2 ng/ml vs 7.4 ng/ml, p = 0.003). In the group of MI patients who died during the follow-up (average period - 2.8 years), we found a significantly higher concentration of Gal-3 (20.0 ng/ml vs 8.0 ng/ml, p = 0.0005) and cIMT values (common carotid artery(CCA): 1.4 ± 0.4 mm vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 mm, p = 0.03; carotid bulb(CB): 2.3 ± 0.5 mm vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.009). In the model of multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables influencing the mortality after MI during follow-up were: age>65 years, Gal-3 concentration>8.7 ng/ml, IMT values and plaque occurrence in CB, previous MI and EF<40%.

Conclusions: Gal-3 is an independent risk factor of CAD occurrence, but cIMT values are better markers of CAD advancement. Both Gal-3 concentration>8.7 ng/ml and IMT values in CB were an independent predictive indicators of increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients after MI during mid-term follow up.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndromes; Galectin-3; Intima-media thickness; Stable coronary artery disease.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Area Under Curve
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Proteins
  • Carotid Arteries / diagnostic imaging*
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / blood*
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / mortality
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease / blood*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease / mortality
  • Echocardiography
  • Echocardiography, Doppler*
  • Female
  • Galectin 3 / blood*
  • Galectins
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Infarction / blood*
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnostic imaging
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • ROC Curve
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Up-Regulation


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Proteins
  • Galectin 3
  • Galectins
  • LGALS3 protein, human