Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) heavily affects the global pork industry. Current available vaccine strategies have inherent drawbacks. In this work, the immune enhancement from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and Freund's adjuvant on the efficacy of a PRRSV subunit vaccine were examined. Titers of specific anti-highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) ELISA antibody and neutralizing antibody were significantly higher in pigs from the groups inoculated with medium- and high-dose TPPPS (mTPPPS, hTPPPS) adjuvant co-administered with a recombinant HP-PRRSV glycoprotein 5 subunit (GP5) than those from other groups (P < 0.05). Pigs inoculated with GP5 + Freund's adjuvant developed severely delayed humoral immune responses specific to GP5 within 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). The groups treated with mTPPPS and hTPPPS adjuvant exhibited the most potent immune enhancement effects on GP5 inoculation with cellular immunity developing, as shown by the level of T lymphocyte proliferation and the percentage of the CD3(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation. Although complete Freund's adjuvant elicited cell-mediated immune responses, the level of T lymphocyte proliferation in this group decreased quickly and no significant differences were observed compared with other adjuvant-alone groups at 56 dpi (P > 0.05). The ratio between CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations indicated the inoculums of GP5 + mTPPPS and GP5 + hTPPPS induced consistently higher CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations than other inoculums (P < 0.05). The immune responses caused by complete Freund's adjuvant were mainly mediated by CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) in the early stage of inoculation and had no significant difference compared with other adjuvant-alone groups after 28 dpi (P > 0.05). The low-dose TPPPS (lTPPPS) adjuvant also exhibited enhancement effects on humoral immune and T lymphocyte proliferation responses but these were significantly lower than the mTPPPS and hTPPPS doses (P < 0.05). Pigs challenged with HP-PRRSV from the GP5 + mTPPPS, GP5 + hTPPPS, and GP5 + Freund's adjuvant groups showed lower viremia, fewer clinical signs, and fewer pathological lung lesions compared with the groups of GP5-alone and GP5 + lTPPPS (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the GP5-alone and GP5 + lTPPPS groups in detection indexes after viral challenge (P < 0.05). In conclusion, moderate doses of TPPPS as an adjuvant with GP5 show promise as a candidate for a HP-PRRSV subunit vaccine to efficiently prevent and control HP-PRRSV.
Keywords: Immune enhancement effect; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus subunit; Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide.
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