Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Mar 15;112:68-76.
doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.01.064. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Identification of Gymnodimine D and Presence of Gymnodimine Variants in the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Ostenfeldii From the Baltic Sea

Affiliations

Identification of Gymnodimine D and Presence of Gymnodimine Variants in the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Ostenfeldii From the Baltic Sea

Kirsi Harju et al. Toxicon. .

Abstract

Gymnodimines are lipophilic toxins produced by the marine dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Currently four gymnodimine analogues are known and characterized. Here we describe a novel gymnodimine and a range of gymnodimine related compounds found in an A. ostenfeldii isolate from the northern Baltic Sea. Gymnodimine D (1) was extracted and purified from clonal cultures, and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) experiments. The structure of 1 is related to known gymnodimines (2-5) with a six-membered cyclic imine ring and several other fragments typical of gymnodimines. However, the carbon chain in the gymnodimine macrocyclic ring differs from the known gymnodimines in having two tetrahydrofuran rings in the macrocyclic ring.

Keywords: Alexandrium ostenfeldii; Dinoflagellate; Gymnodimine; High resolution mass spectrometry; Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; Nuclear magnetic resonance.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 8 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback