Study of predictive factors affecting the prolonged urinary leakage after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Urol Ann. 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):60-5. doi: 10.4103/0974-7796.164856.


Objective: To evaluate the factors that may influence the prolonged urinary leakage following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Materials and methods: A total of 936 consecutive patients underwent PCNL during the study period from April 2013 to December 2014 at our center, and data were recorded prospectively. Patients who required stage PCNL, chronic renal failure and diabetic patients, concurrent ureteric stone and patients in whom double-J stent was placed because of ureteropelvic injury, or pelvicalyceal extravasation were excluded from the study. After exclusion, 576 patients were included in the study. The predictive factors that may lead to prolonged urinary leakage after PCNL were broadly categorized into patient-related factors and procedure-related factors. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 32) - Required double-J stent placement due to prolonged urinary leakage (>48 h) after removal of the nephrostomy tube. Group 2 (n = 544) - Did not require double-J stent placement.

Results: Patient-related factors such as stone complexity, grade of hydronephrosis, renal parenchymal thickness in access line, and intra-parenchymal renal pelvis were most important factors for prolonged urinary leakage (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively), while procedure-related factors such as multiple punctures, surgeon's experience, and residual stones were most important factors for prolonged urinary leakage (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusion: In the present study, several factors appear to affect post-PCNL prolonged urinary leakage. We suggest that patients who are at increased risk of prolonged urinary leakage double-J stent should be placed at the end of PCNL procedure.

Keywords: Intra-parenchymal renal pelvis; renal parenchymal thickness in access line; residual stones.