Sex-Specific Predictors of Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 May;97(5):772-80. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2016.01.011. Epub 2016 Feb 1.


Objective: To identify sex-specific predictors of inpatient rehabilitation outcomes among patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a population-based perspective.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation.

Participants: Patients in inpatient rehabilitation for a TBI within 1 year of acute care discharge between 2008/2009 and 2011/2012 (N=1730, 70% men, 30% women).

Interventions: None.

Main outcome measures: Inpatient rehabilitation length of stay, total FIM score, and motor and cognitive FIM ratings at discharge.

Results: Sex, as a covariate in multivariable linear regression models, was not a significant predictor of rehabilitation outcomes. Although many of the predictors examined were similar across men and women, sex-specific multivariable models identified some predictors of rehabilitation outcome that are specific for men and women; mechanism of injury (P<.0001) was a significant predictor of functional outcome only among women, whereas comorbidities (P<.0001) was a significant predictor for men only.

Conclusions: Predictors of outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation differed by sex, providing evidence for a sex-specific approach in planning and resource allocation for inpatient rehabilitation services for patients with TBI.

Keywords: Brain injuries; International Classification of Diseases; Rehabilitation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / etiology
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / physiopathology
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / rehabilitation*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Inpatients / statistics & numerical data*
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Discharge / statistics & numerical data*
  • Recovery of Function
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult