Does Integrating Family Planning into HIV Services Improve Gender Equitable Attitudes? Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial in Nyanza, Kenya

AIDS Behav. 2016 Sep;20(9):1883-92. doi: 10.1007/s10461-015-1279-4.


This study investigated whether integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care was associated with gender equitable attitudes among HIV-positive adults in western Kenya. Surveys were conducted with 480 women and 480 men obtaining HIV services from 18 clinics 1 year after the sites were randomized to integrated FP/HIV services (N = 12) or standard referral for FP (N = 6). We used multivariable regression, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering, to assess whether gender attitudes (range 0-12) were associated with integrated care and with contraceptive use. Men at intervention sites had stronger gender equitable attitudes than those at control sites (adjusted mean difference in scores = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.03-1.74). Among women, attitudes did not differ by study arm. Gender equitable attitudes were not associated with contraceptive use among men (AOR = 1.06, 95 % CI 0.93-1.21) or women (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 0.94-1.13). Further work is needed to understand how integrating FP into HIV care affects gender relations, and how improved gender equity among men might be leveraged to improve contraceptive use and other reproductive health outcomes.

Keywords: Family planning; Gender equity; HIV; Integrated services; Sub-Saharan Africa.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Contraception / statistics & numerical data*
  • Contraception Behavior / statistics & numerical data*
  • Counseling / methods*
  • Delivery of Health Care, Integrated / organization & administration*
  • Family Planning Services / organization & administration*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / therapy
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Kenya
  • Male
  • Sex Factors
  • Sexual Partners
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-HIV Agents