Perspectives on holoprosencephaly: Part III. Spectra, distinctions, continuities, and discontinuities

Am J Med Genet. 1989 Oct;34(2):271-88. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320340232.


This paper attempts to balance our knowledge of holoprosencephalic spectra and continuities with important distinctions and discontinuities. Prevalence studies and syndrome delineation are briefly reviewed. The following topics receive detailed coverage: human teratogens, special aspects of forebrain and hindbrain malformations, aprosencephaly/atelencephaly, association with neural tube defects, current assessment of "facial principles," and endocrine abnormalities.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / epidemiology*
  • Brain / abnormalities*
  • Facial Bones / abnormalities
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Syndrome
  • Teratogens


  • Teratogens