Promotion of mitotic catastrophe via activation of PTEN by paclitaxel with supplement of mulberry water extract in bladder cancer cells

Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 3;6:20417. doi: 10.1038/srep20417.


Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. Mulberry fruit is rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids and exhibits chemopreventive activities. In this study, mulberry water extract (MWE) was used as a supplement to synergize with the effects of paclitaxel in the treatment of the TSGH 8301 human bladder cancer cell line. Treatment with paclitaxel combined with MWE (paclitaxel/MWE) enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and induced severe G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and subsequent apoptosis, as shown by MTT assay, HE staining and flow cytometry analyses. Differences in the expression and activation of Aurora A and Plk1 between cells treated with paclitaxel/MWE and paclitaxel alone suggested that the combined treatment caused a defect in the early steps of cytokinesis. Paclitaxel/MWE decreased EEA1 immunofluorescence staining and increased the expression of PTEN, indicating that the regimen inhibited the formation of the recycling endosome, which is required for cytokinesis. Paclitaxel/MWE also retarded tumor growth in a TSGH 8301 xenograft model via activation of PTEN and Caspase 3. These data demonstrated a synergistic effect on the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel through MWE supplementation by promoting mitotic catastrophe through the activation of PTEN, providing a novel and effective therapeutic option for bladder cancer treatment strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Drug Synergism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mitosis / drug effects
  • Morus / chemistry*
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism*
  • Paclitaxel / administration & dosage*
  • Paclitaxel / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • PTEN protein, human
  • Paclitaxel