Prediabetes Phenotype Influences Improvements in Glucose Homeostasis with Resistance Training

PLoS One. 2016 Feb 3;11(2):e0148009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148009. eCollection 2016.

Abstract

Purpose: To determine if prediabetes phenotype influences improvements in glucose homeostasis with resistance training (RT).

Methods: Older, overweight individuals with prediabetes (n = 159; aged 60±5 yrs; BMI 33±4 kg/m2) completed a supervised RT program twice per week for 12 weeks. Body weight and composition, strength, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance, and Matsuda-Defronza estimated insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were assessed before and after the intervention. Participants were categorized according to their baseline prediabetes phenotype as impaired fasting glucose only (IFG) (n = 73), impaired glucose tolerance only (IGT) (n = 21), or combined IFG and IGT (IFG/IGT) (n = 65).

Results: Chest press and leg press strength increased 27% and 18%, respectively, following the 12-week RT program (both p<0.05). Waist circumference (-1.0%; pre 109.3±10.3 cm, post 108.2±10.6 cm) and body fat (-0.6%; pre 43.7±6.8%, post 43.1±6.8%) declined, and lean body mass (+1.3%; pre 52.0±10.4 kg, post 52.7±10.7 kg) increased following the intervention. Fasting glucose concentrations did not change (p>0.05) following the intervention. However, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance improved in those with IGT (pre 8.94±0.72 mmol/l, post 7.83±1.11 mmol/l, p<0.05) and IFG/IGT (pre 9.66±1.11mmol/l, post 8.60±2.00 mmol/l) but not in those with IFG (pre 6.27±1.28mmol/l, post 6.33± 1.55 mmol/l). There were no significant changes in ISI or glucose area under the curve following the RT program.

Conclusions: RT without dietary intervention improves 2-hr oral glucose tolerance in individuals with prediabetes. However, the improvements in glucose homeostasis with RT appear limited to those with IGT or combined IFG and IGT.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01112709.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / physiology
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Body Composition / physiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Homeostasis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prediabetic State / metabolism*
  • Resistance Training / methods*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucose

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01112709

Grant support

This study was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) grant number NCT01112709 (RAW and BMD are the principal investigators on this grant), URL: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx.