We aimed to investigate the association between dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene polymorphisms and the risk of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its prognosis after chemotherapy. A total of 147 pediatric ALL patients diagnosed by our hospital between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the case group, and 102 healthy people who received a physical examination during the same time frame in our hospital were included in the control group. DNA sequencing was applied for site determination and genotyping of the DPYD 85T > C, 2194G > A, 1156G > T, and IVS14 + 1G > A polymorphisms. The genotype and allele frequencies of the two groups were compared. A significant difference was found in the comparison of the mutant gene and allele frequencies of the 85T > C polymorphism between the case and control groups (P < 0.05). The CT and CC genotypes in the 85T > C polymorphism were associated with the risk of the disease (OR = 1.592, 95 % CI = 1.010-2.509), suggesting that the recessive gene (85C) was more likely to lead to the occurrence of ALL compared with the dominant gene (85T) (P < 0.05). Patients carrying the C allele of the 85T > C polymorphism presented higher damage of their liver functions and higher infection rates compared with patients carrying the non-C allele (P < 0.05). A higher proportion of liver function damage and a higher infection rate were found in patients with the GA genotype in the IVS14 + 1G > A polymorphism compared with the GG genotype (P < 0.05). The complete remission (CR) rate in patients with the GG genotype in the IVS14 + 1G > A polymorphism was higher than in patients with the GA genotype (P = 0.020). After 5-fluorouracil/calcium folinate (5-FU/CF)-based chemotherapy, the event-free survival (EFS) rate of patients with the TT genotype was higher than patients with the CT and CC genotypes (P < 0.05). Our results revealed that the C allele of the 85T > C polymorphism might be associated with susceptibility to pediatric ALL. Patients carrying the C allele may have an increased risk of ALL. Thus, the 85T > C polymorphism may be a predictor of CR for pediatric ALL patients.
Keywords: 1156G > T; 2194G > A; 5-Fluorouracil; 85T > C; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; DPYD gene polymorphism; VS14 + 1G > A.