Adipose tissue is now widely recognized as "an organ" able to synthesize and secrete hundred factors collectively called adipokines. These secreted molecules exert pleiotropic actions, notably on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, reproduction, or angiogenesis. Over the past two decades, a considerable amount of work was performed on the two "star" adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, particularly because of their involvement in energy metabolism. The present review is focused on the three most recently discovered adipokines that are clearly emerging as important actors in metabolism: apelin, fibroblast growth factor-21, and neuroregulin-4. Moreover, given a number of clinical and experimental data, these three adipokines represent promising targets in the context of metabolic disorders associated with obesity.
Keywords: Adipocyte; Adipokine; Adipose tissue; Apelin; Apéline; Fibroblast growth factor-21; Insulin resistance; Insulinorésistance; Neuroregulin-4; Neuroréguline-4; Obesity; Obésité; Tissu adipeux.
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