Background: The diagnosis of extraneural metastasis from glioblastoma is usually based on the histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of a tumor specimen. Information regarding the molecular features of glioblastoma and optimal treatment strategies for extraneural metastasis is limited.
Case description: A 58-year-old woman with a glioblastoma located in the left temporal lobe underwent resection followed by radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Ipsilateral cervical lymph node tumors were treated 29 months later with supraomohyoid neck dissection and temozolomide. The diagnosis of lymph node metastases from glioblastoma was confirmed with an OncoScan assay and pathologic analysis. The brain and lymph node tumors had identical genotypes: C228T-mutated TERT promoter, wild-type IDH1, wild-type IDH2, wild-type TP53, EGFR amplification, and unmethylated MGMT promoter. Subsequently, multiple bone metastases were detected and treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. Widespread extraneural metastases were detected 49 months after the initial diagnosis, and the patient underwent chemotherapy with cisplatin and semustine. There was no evidence of intracranial relapse until death, which occurred 5 months after chemotherapy.
Conclusions: Similar to carcinomas, glioblastomas can spread via the lymphatic route. Extensive therapies for extraneural metastases from glioblastoma can alleviate discomfort and prolong survival, especially in patients without intracranial relapse.
Keywords: Extraneural metastasis; Glioblastoma; Metastatic route; Molecular feature; Treatment.
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