Increased infection risk after hip hemiarthroplasty in institutionalized patients with proximal femur fracture

Injury. 2016 Apr;47(4):872-6. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2015.12.032. Epub 2016 Jan 7.


In patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty (HHA) secondary to proximal femur fracture, acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most important complications. We have detected an increased risk of PJI in chronic institutionalized patients (CIPs), and a higher number of early postoperative infections are caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), not covered by the current prophylaxis (cefazolin in noninstitutionalized patients (NIPs) and cotrimoxazole in CIPs). We sought to compare infection characteristics between NIPs and CIPs, analyzing predisposing factors, causative pathogens, and antibiotic prophylaxis-related microbiological characteristics. We performed a retrospective review of our prospective institutional database to identify all patients consecutively admitted for HHA to treat proximal femur fracture at our centre between 2011 and 2013. PJI was diagnosed in 21 of 381 (5.51%) patients, with 10 of 105 (9.52%) in the CIP group and 11 of 276 (3.99%) in the NIP group, and statistical significance was achieved. GNB accounted for PJI in 14 (66.67%) patients. We detected a single case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the NIP group. We confirm a higher risk of acute PJI among institutionalized patients, commonly caused by Gram-negative microorganisms, which are not covered by the current prophylaxis. New prophylactic strategies should be investigated in order to reduce this problem.

Keywords: Acute periprosthetic joint infection; Antibiotic prophylaxis; Hip hemiarthroplasty.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis / methods*
  • Female
  • Femoral Fractures / microbiology
  • Femoral Fractures / surgery*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
  • Hemiarthroplasty* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Institutionalization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Middle Aged
  • Prosthesis-Related Infections / drug therapy
  • Prosthesis-Related Infections / microbiology
  • Prosthesis-Related Infections / prevention & control*
  • Reoperation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spain
  • Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology
  • Staphylococcal Infections / prevention & control*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents