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Review
, 212 (4), 379-87

Metabolic Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics

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Review

Metabolic Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics

Prashant Mishra et al. J Cell Biol.

Abstract

Mitochondria are renowned for their central bioenergetic role in eukaryotic cells, where they act as powerhouses to generate adenosine triphosphate from oxidation of nutrients. At the same time, these organelles are highly dynamic and undergo fusion, fission, transport, and degradation. Each of these dynamic processes is critical for maintaining a healthy mitochondrial population. Given the central metabolic function of mitochondria, it is not surprising that mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics reciprocally influence each other. We review the dynamic properties of mitochondria, with an emphasis on how these processes respond to cellular signaling events and how they affect metabolism.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Overview of mitochondrial metabolism and dynamics. The mitochondrion is central to metabolism, being involved in the catabolism of numerous substrates, generation of metabolic signals, and sensing of metabolic cues. The processes diagrammed are not meant to be exhaustive, but to illustrate the diversity of biochemical pathways that impinge on the organelle. Mitochondria participate in macroscopic behaviors (termed dynamics) including fusion, fission, transport, and mitophagy. Although these behaviors are molecularly distinct from the organelle’s bioenergetic reactions, recent studies suggest that metabolism and dynamics are highly linked and regulate one another. ROS, reactive oxygen species.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Metabolic regulation of mitochondrial fusion. Mitochondrial fusion consists of outer membrane fusion, mediated by mitofusins, followed by inner membrane fusion, mediated by Opa1. Modes of regulation include the following: (1) Oxidative stress and high levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) promote trans complexes of mitofusins, facilitated by disulfide bonds (red bars), leading to organelle tethering and enhanced outer-membrane fusion. (2) Inner-membrane fusion is stimulated by OXPHOS activity, which enhances Yme1L-mediated proteolytic processing of Opa1 from the long form to the soluble short form. In isolated organelles, Opa1 proteolysis is necessary and sufficient to activate inner-membrane fusion. (3) Enhanced ATP levels are potentially linked to GTP-loading of Opa1 via the nucleotide diphosphate kinase NM23-H4. GTP loading and hydrolysis by Opa1 are required for inner-membrane fusion. (4) Metabolic stresses, including loss of membrane potential, activate the inner membrane protease Oma1 and result in complete proteolytic processing of Opa1. Short forms of Opa1, by themselves, are inactive for inner-membrane fusion.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Metabolic regulation of mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the master regulator Drp1, which must be recruited from a cytosolic pool onto the mitochondrial surface. Receptor proteins on the outer membrane are required for Drp1 recruitment and activation of fission. For simplicity, only two receptor proteins, Mff and MiD51, are shown. Four modes of regulation are color-coded in the diagram: (1) Exercise and nitrogen starvation result in PKA activation, followed by phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637, which is inhibitory for fission because of sequestration of Drp1 in the cytosol. (2) Reversal of phosphoS637 can be achieved via calcineurin, which is activated by metabolic uncoupling of the organelle. These events lead to recruitment of Drp1 and rapid activation of fission. (3) Cold exposure and oncogenic RasG12V activate fission via Ser616 phosphorylation by PKA or MAPK, respectively. (4) Severe energy depletion can potentially activate fission via elevation of ADP and AMP levels. ADP binding to the MiD51 receptor is necessary for Drp1 recruitment and fission. AMP-sensing by AMPK results in phosphorylated Mff and activated fission.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Metabolic regulation of mitochondrial transport and mitophagy. (A) In mammals, mitochondrial transport is primarily mediated by microtubule-dependent motors, such as kinesin for anterograde movement. Kinesin-1 attaches to mitochondria via its adaptor (Milton) and receptor (Miro). The Miro–Milton–kinesin complex allows for organelle movement under basal conditions. (1) At active synapses of neurons, increased Ca2+ levels result in pausing of mitochondria to supply local ATP to drive energy-intensive processes such as synaptic vesicle recycling. Depending on the model, Ca2+ loading of the EF-hands of Miro is followed by either release of the Miro–Milton–kinesin complex from the microtubule or anchoring of the mitochondrion via syntaphilin. (2) Elevated glucose levels also promote stalling, caused by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)-mediated glycosylation of Milton. Although glycosylated Milton is depicted in the syntaphilin model, this is for convenience; the precise method by which glycosylation of Milton mediates stalling is unclear. This regulatory pathway may allow mitochondria to be positioned at locations of nutrient abundance, increasing their efficiency of ATP generation. (B) Multiple mechanisms for regulation of mitophagy have been proposed: (1) Mitochondrial damage leading to loss of membrane potential (ΔΨm) causes Pink1 accumulation (not depicted), followed by Parkin recruitment and ubiquitination of multiple outer membrane proteins. These events activate the outer membrane for processing via the proteasome system (UPS), followed by targeting to autophagosome membranes. (2) Severe energy depletion leads to activation of AMPK, followed by phosphorylation and activation of the autophagy regulator ULK1. ULK1 is then able to activate generalized autophagy, including mitophagy. (3) Hypoxia is able to activate mitophagy via the dephosphorylation of FUNDC1 (on the outer membrane) by the PGAM5 phosphatase. Dephosphorylated FUNDC1 serves to recruit LC3 and autophagosomal membranes. (4) Through unknown mechanisms, enhanced OXPHOS activity in the mitochondrion recruits the autophagy regulator Rheb to the outer membrane receptor Nix. Mitochondrially-localized Rheb then promotes autophagy via recruitment of LC3 molecules.

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