Photopreventive Effect and Mechanism of AZD4547 and Curcumin C3 Complex on UVB-Induced Epidermal Hyperplasia

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Apr;9(4):296-304. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-15-0366. Epub 2016 Feb 9.


Aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) of the skin is the second most common type of skin cancer in the United States due to high exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. In our previous studies, Curcumin C3 complex (C3), a standardized preparation of three curcumonoids, delayed UVB-induced tumor incidence and inhibited multiplicity. Exposure to UVB activates mTOR and FGFR signaling that play a key role in skin tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of C3 complex to afford protection against acute UVB-induced hyperproliferation by targeting the mTOR and FGFR signaling pathways. Pretreatment with C3 complex significantly inhibited UVB-induced FGF-2 induction, FGF-2-induced cell proliferation, progression and colony formation, mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation, and FGFR2 phosphorylation in the promotion-sensitive JB6 cells epithelial cells. Further, FGFR was critical for UVB-induced mTOR activation, suggesting an important role of FGFR2 in UVB-induced mTOR signaling. SKH-1 mice pretreated with C3 (15 mg/kg/b.w.) for 2 weeks followed by a single exposure to UVB (180 mj/cm(2)) significantly attenuated UVB-induced mTORC1, mTORC2, and FGFR2 activation. To further assess the role of FGFR in UVB-induced hyperproliferation, SKH-1 mice were pretreated with AZD4547 (5 mg/kg/b.w.); a selective pan-FGFR kinase inhibitor followed by single exposure to UVB (180 mj/cm(2)). AZD4547 significantly inhibited UVB-induced mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation, epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferation. Our studies underscore the importance of FGFR signaling in UVB-induced acute skin changes and the role of FGFR/mTOR signaling in mediating the effects of C3 complex in the pathogenesis of skin cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Benzamides / pharmacology*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / radiation effects
  • Curcumin / pharmacology*
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Epidermis / radiation effects*
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / blood
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperplasia
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2
  • Mice
  • Mice, Hairless
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Piperazines / pharmacology*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology*
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects*


  • AZD4547
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Benzamides
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Piperazines
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Pyrazoles
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
  • Fgfr2 protein, mouse
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Curcumin