Here we offer a review of the literature regarding endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours and describe the case of a cystic tumour completely ablated after a multisession procedure. A total of 35 PubMed indexed cases of treated functioning and non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours resulted from our search, 29 of which are well-documented and summarised. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation appears as a local, minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, suitable for selected patients. This technique appears feasible, relatively safe and efficient, especially when applied to symptom relief in functioning tumours, aiming at loss of endocrine secretion. For non-functioning tumours, where the goal is complete tissue ablation, eus guided ethanol ablation can provide good results for patients who are unfit for surgery or for those who refuse surgical resection. Its role in "fit for surgery" patients requires assessment through further studies.
Keywords: Endoscopic ultrasound; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided injection; Ethanol; Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour; Tumour ablation.