Defensins are a group of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in different living organisms, and are involved in the first line of defense in the innate immune response against pathogens. The increase in the resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics and the need for new antibiotics has stimulated interest in the use of AMPs as new therapeutic agents. The inducible nature of human defensin genes suggests that it is possible to increase the endogenous production by utilizing small molecules of various origins to enhance, even selectively, the expression of these peptides. In the light of their role in immunomodulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, inflammation and cancer, as well as their antimicrobial activity, it is possible induce their expression or create analogs with increased specific activity or various degrees of selectivity, or obtain human defensins with genetic engineering to optimize the potency and safety in order to reduce cytotoxicity and potential proinflammatory activity and susceptibility to protease and salt. Restoring the balance between immunostimulating and immunosuppressive molecules may be an important strategy to correct expression defects in specific diseases.
Keywords: Angiogenesis; Beta defensins; Cancer; Inflammatory mediators; Wound healing.