[Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP)--a new form of augmented ventilation]

Anaesthesist. 1989 Sep;38(9):452-8.
[Article in German]


Two modes of combining spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation are already in use: periodic mechanical support always followed by a period of spontaneous breathing (intermittent mandatory ventilation; IMV) and mechanical support of each spontaneous breath (inspiratory assistance; IA). Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP), in contrast, is based on neither of the above mentioned principles. It is rather a mixture of pressure controlled (PC) ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The BIPAP circuit switches between a high (Phi) and a low (Plo) airway pressure level in an adjustable time sequence. At both pressure levels the patient can breathe spontaneously in a continuous positive airway pressure system (CPAP). The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phi and Plo and the BIPAP frequency (F) contribute the mechanical ventilation to total ventilation. Duration of the Phi and the Plo phases can be independently adjusted. Similar to the I:E ratio during controlled ventilation, the phase time ratio (PhTR) is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases. A PhTR greater than 1:1 is called IR-BIPAP. A BIPAP system can be set up either as a continuous flow system, or as a demand valve system. A continuous-flow BIPAP system consists of a high-flow CPAP system, a reservoir bag, and a pneumatically controlled membrane valve in the expiratory limb. A magnetic valve operated by an impulse generator switches between Phi and Plo, controlling the pop-off pressures of the expiratory valve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing / instrumentation*
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing / methods
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation / instrumentation
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation / methods
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration / instrumentation*