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. Jan-Feb 2016;78(6):8-16.

Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study

Free PMC article

Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study

Rhonda Spencer-Hwang et al. J Environ Health. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1. Map of the Study Area
This map illustrates the location of the exposure elementary school (EES) and the control elementary school (CES), relative to the San Bernardino Railyard and in relation to the transportation infrastructure (railroads and roadways). The dashed circles identify the areas where two-thirds (approximately 67%) of the participating students at each school reside.

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