TAM receptor tyrosine kinase function and the immunopathology of liver disease

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jun 1;310(11):G899-905. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00382.2015. Epub 2016 Feb 11.


Tyro3, Axl, MERTK (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases are implicated in the regulation of the innate immune response through clearance of apoptotic cellular debris and control of cytokine signaling cascades. As a result they are pivotal in regulating the inflammatory response to tissue injury. Within the liver, immune regulatory signaling is employed to prevent the overactivation of innate immunity in response to continual antigenic challenge from the gastrointestinal tract. In this review we appraise current understanding of the role of TAM receptor function in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, with a focus on its impact upon hepatic inflammatory pathology.

Keywords: Axl; Mer; Tyro3, Axl, MERTK; antitumor immunity; immune regulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Liver Diseases / immunology*
  • Liver Diseases / pathology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase


  • Cytokines
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • MERTK protein, human
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • TYRO3 protein, human
  • axl receptor tyrosine kinase
  • c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase