A Gram-reaction-positive and rod-shaped bacterium, designated KN3-8-4T, was isolated from shrimp paste collected from a market in Nakhon Sri Thammarat province, Thailand. Strain KN3-8-4T was a strictly aerobic, motile bacterium that produced ellipsoidal endospores at a terminal position. The isolate grew at pH 4.5-10 (optimum pH 7.5), at 11-42 °C (optimum 37 °C) and in the presence of 0-15% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1-5%). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain KN3-8-4T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus and showed highest similarity with Virgibacillus olivae JCM 30551T (97.85% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Strain KN3-8-4T contained anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 as major cellular fatty acids and had phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unknown phospholipids and one glycolipid as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Strain KN3-8-4T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (20.44%) with V. olivae JCM 30551T. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analyses, strain KN3-8-4T represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus for which the name Virgibacillus kapii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KN3-8-4T (=JCM 30071T=LMG 28282T=TISTR 2279T=PCU 345T).