Prospective association of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage intake with risk of hypertension

Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 Apr;109(4):242-53. doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2015.10.005. Epub 2016 Jan 19.


Background: Several observational studies have suggested that high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is associated with increased blood pressure, but this relationship has not been investigated comprehensively.

Aims: To quantitatively examine the association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage intake and risk of hypertension.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible prospective cohort studies, identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases up to May 2015. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, and generalized least-squares trend estimation was used to assess dose-response relationships.

Results: Six studies (246,822 subjects and 80,628 incident cases of hypertension) were identified for the meta-analysis of SSBs and hypertension. The pooled RR of hypertension in the highest category of SSB consumption (≥1 serving/day, mean) compared with the lowest category of SSB (<0.6 serving/month, mean) was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.17). In a dose-response analysis, a 1 serving/day increase in SSB intake was associated with an 8% increased risk of hypertension (RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.11). Four studies (227,254 subjects and 78,177 incident cases of hypertension) were included in the meta-analysis of ASBs and hypertension. The pooled RRs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.18) for highest versus lowest analysis and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.11) for every additional 1 serving/day increase in ASB consumption. The positive association did not vary significantly by sex, duration of follow-up or adjustment for body mass index.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that high SSB and ASB consumption is associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Boissons avec édulcorants de synthèse; HTA; Hypertension; Meta-analysis; Méta-analyse; Pression artérielle; Prospective cohort studies; Sweetened beverage; Étude de cohorte.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Beverages*
  • Dietary Sucrose / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / chemically induced*
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sweetening Agents / adverse effects*


  • Dietary Sucrose
  • Sweetening Agents