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Case Reports
. 2016 Feb;8(2):304-13.
doi: 10.18632/aging.100896.

Inhalational Alzheimer's Disease: An Unrecognized - And Treatable - Epidemic

Free PMC article
Case Reports

Inhalational Alzheimer's Disease: An Unrecognized - And Treatable - Epidemic

Dale E Bredesen. Aging (Albany NY). .
Free PMC article


Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave.

Keywords: biomarkers; biotoxins; chronic inflammatory response syndrome; cognition; dementia; mycotoxins; neurodegeneration.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest statement

The author of this manuscript declares no conflict of interest.

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