Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Case Reports
. 2016 Feb;8(2):304-13.
doi: 10.18632/aging.100896.

Inhalational Alzheimer's Disease: An Unrecognized - And Treatable - Epidemic

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Case Reports

Inhalational Alzheimer's Disease: An Unrecognized - And Treatable - Epidemic

Dale E Bredesen. Aging (Albany NY). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave.

Keywords: biomarkers; biotoxins; chronic inflammatory response syndrome; cognition; dementia; mycotoxins; neurodegeneration.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest statement

The author of this manuscript declares no conflict of interest.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 3 articles

References

    1. James BD, Leurgans SE, Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Yaffe K, Bennett DA. Contribution of Alzheimer disease to mortality in the United States. Neurology. 2014;82:1045–1050. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Seshadri S, Drachman DA, Lippa CF. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele and the lifetime risk of Alzheimer's disease. What physicians know, and what they should know. Arch Neurol. 1995;52:1074–1079. - PubMed
    1. Bredesen DE. Reversal of cognitive decline: A novel therapeutic program. Aging (Albany NY) 2014;6:1–11. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Bredesen DE. Metabolic profiling distinguishes three subtypes of Alzheimer's disease. Aging (Albany NY) 2015;7:595–600. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Shoemaker RT., MD . Surviving mold: life in the era of dangerous buildings. Baltimore, MD: Otter Bay Books; 2010.

Publication types

Supplementary concepts

Feedback